19 May 2018
Fiqh of Ramadhaan: Rulings on Fasting and Taraweeh (Part 1)
The Day of doubt
- ’Ammar bin Yasir (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated, ‘Whoever fasts the day of doubt he has then disobeyed Abu al-Qasim (the Prophet).’ [Related by the five Imams, and Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibban graded it as Sahih]
- What is the “day of doubt”?
- Issue: if the people try to sight the moon on the 29th of Sha’baan but cannot see it due to weather, should the next day be considered the first day of Ramadhaan or should they complete 30 days of Sha’baan?
- This hadith indicates that it is impermissible to fast on the day following the day of doubt
- Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) made a mention of the new moon and (in this connection) said: “Observe fast when you see it (the new moon) and break fast when you see it (the new moon of Shawwal), but when (the actual position of the month is) concealed from you(on account of cloudy sky), then count thirty days. [Sahih Muslim]
- What does it mean to “count” or in other narrations to “estimate” 30 days
- According to these two narrations, then
- Ibn’Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated, ‘The people were trying to sight the new moon (of Ramadan.) and when I reported to the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) that I had seen it, he fasted and commanded people to fast.’ [Related by Abu Dawud, and Al-Hakim and Ibn Hibban graded it as Sahih.]
- Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas: A bedouin came to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and said: I have sighted the moon. Al-Hasan added in his version: that is, of Ramadan. He asked: Do you testify that there is no god but Allah? He replied: Yes. He again asked: Do you testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah? He replied: Yes. and he testified that he had sighted the moon. He said: “Bilal, announce to the people that they must fast tomorrow”. [Abu Dawud]
- This hadith shows us that one person, one witness who sees the moon who is Muslim is enough for the rest to start fasting the next day
- Shayh Fawzaan says it can be either a man or a woman, other scholars have differing opinions on that specific issue.
- How many ways to tell if Ramadhaan has started?
- Seeing the new moon
- 30 days of Sha’baan being completed, then next day will be Ramadhaan
- These are the only two ways
- Astronomic/mathematical Calculations etc are impermissible
The intention for Ramadhaan
- The mother of the believers, Hafsah (may Allah be pleased with her) narrated that The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “Whoever does not form his intention to fast before to fajr, his fasting will not be accepted.” Related by the five Imams, but At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i consider it to be related by Hafsah and not connected to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم). Imam Ad-Daraqutni transmitted, “No fasting is accepted for one who does not form the intention (to fast) the night before.”
- This hadith applies to the obligatory fast and shows us that if one has not made intention before the Fajr time starts
- It was narrated that ‘Aishah said:“The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) would enter upon me and say: ‘Do you have anything (any food)?’ If we said: ‘No,’ he would say: ‘Then I am fasting.’ So he would continue fasting, then it we were given some food, he would break his fast.” She said: “Sometimes he would fast and (then) break fast (i.e., combine fasting and breaking fast in one day).” I said: “How is that?” She said: “Like the one who goes out with charity (i.e., something to give in charity),and he gives some away and keeps some.” [Ibn Maajah]
- This hadith applies to the optional fasts and indicates that one can start a fast midway through the day if one has not eaten anything rpiort ot it