40 Hadith: Lesson 4
Sunday 14th Oct 2018
Lesson 4: Hadith 1 (parts 7-9) and Hadith 2 (Parts 1-2)
- Recap of Lesson 3:
- This hadith (i.e. hadith number 1) is one of the three ahaadeeth about which Islam revolves around
- The other two hadeeth are the Hadith of Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) and Nu’man Ibn Bashir (may Allah be pleased with him)
- The Prophet’s (ﷺ) use of the word only
- The purpose behind Intention
- How intention distinguishes between acts of worship and ordinary actions or habits
- How innovation distinguishes between difference between different acts of worship
- The words of the Prophet (ﷺ) “Indeed Actions are by intentions”
- The Statement of the Prophet (ﷺ) “And indeed every man will have what he intended”
- The Statement of the Prophet (ﷺ) “He whose migration is for Allah and his messenger, then his migration is for Allah and his Messenger, and he whose migration is for Worldly gains or to marry a Woman, then his migration is for whatever he migrated for”
Part 7: The context of this Hadith
- Some say that this hadith was based on a historical event that a man immigrated to Madinah in order to marry a woman
- However Ibn Rajab says that there is no sound chain of narration to verify this
PArt 8: Where is intention located?
- For example, dhikr or supplication is made upon the tongue and prayer is an act of worshipped performed by the limbs, so where is intention located?
- Niyyah (intention) is located in the heart, it is an act of the heart
- Pronouncing one’s intention verbally is an innovation and not from the Sunnah (Example given by Shaykh Uthaymeen)
Part 9: Summary of Benefits from this hadith
- There is no action except with an intention
- Actions are considered based on their intentions
- The reward for an action is based upon its intention
- The scholar should provide examples to clarify the matter and this is an emulation of the Prophet (ﷺ)
- The virtue of Al-Hijrah (Migration)
- A person will be rewarded or deprived based upon his intention
- An good action may just be a habit or ordinary action, however this can be considered an act of worship if this brings him closer or aids him in his other acts of worship
- An action can be a source of reward (e.g. doing it for the sake of Allah sincerely) or it may be a cause of punishment (e.g. if one did it out of showing off or shirk)
Second Hadith: Islam, faith and Ihsan
- Also on the authority of `Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) who said: “While we were one day sitting with the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) there appeared before us a man dressed in extremely white clothes and with very black hair. No traces of journeying were visible on him, and none of us knew him. He sat down close by the Prophet (ﷺ) rested his knees against the knees of the Prophet (ﷺ) and placed his palms over his thighs, and said: “O Muhammad! Inform me about Islam.” The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) replied: “Islam is that you should testify that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is His Messenger (ﷺ), that you should perform salah (ritual prayer), pay the zakah, fast during Ramadan, and perform Hajj (pilgrimage) to the House (the Ka`bah at Makkah), if you can find a way to it (or find the means for making the journey to it).” He said: “You have spoken the truth.” We were astonished at his thus questioning him (ﷺ) and then telling him that he was right, but he went on to say, “Inform me about Iman (faith).” He (the Prophet) answered, “It is that you believe in Allah and His angels and His Books and His Messengers and in the Last Day, and in fate (qadar), both in its good and in its evil aspects.” He said, “You have spoken the truth.” Then he (the man) said, “Inform me about Ihsan.” He (the Prophet) answered, “It is that you should serve Allah as though you could see Him, for though you cannot see Him yet He sees you.” He said, “Inform me about the Hour.” He (the Prophet) said, “About that the one questioned knows no more than the questioner.” So he said, “Then, inform me about its signs.” He said, “They are that the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress and that you will see the barefooted ones, the naked, the destitute, the herdsmen of the sheep (competing with each other) in raising lofty buildings.” Thereupon the man went off. I waited a while, and then he (the Prophet) said, “O `Umar, do you know who that questioner was?” I replied, “Allah and His Messenger know better.” He said, “That was Jibreel. He came to teach you your religion.” [Muslim]
- Why did Umar mention colour of the man’s (Jibreel, may peace be upon him) clothes and hair?
- Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) was surprised by the man addressing the Prophet (ﷺ) as simply “Muhammad” yet he was a stranger, not from Madinah and none of them had ever seen him
- Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) was surprised at how the man asked a question yet answered “You have spoken the truth” afterwards
- NOTE: the “hour” is a reference to the Day of Judgement
- This hadith has a great station in our religion, some scholars call this hadith “Umm As-Sunnah” i.e. it is the foundations of the sunnah
- Shaykh AbdelMushin Al-Abbād’s explanation of this hadith consists of 12 parts
Part 1: Imam Muslim’s placement of this hadith at the beginning of his Sahih
- Imam Muslim, who recorded this hadith, places this hadith as his first hadith of his famous book “Sahih Muslim”
Part 2: The Context of this Hadith
- Islam Who were the first misguided 3 sects to emerge?
- Qadariyya (those who deny the decree of Allah
- The Murji’ah
- In the time of Ibn Umar (died 73 Hijrah, may Allah be pleased with him), a new sect emerged (The Qadariyya) who denied the decree of Allah (subhaanallaah). This sect was headed by the innovator Ma’bad al-Juhani.
- Imam muslim narrates this hadith to provide context of the hadith of Umar above
- It is narrated on the authority of Yahya b. Ya’mur that the first man who discussed qadr (Divine Decree) in Basra was Ma’bad al-Juhani. I along with Humaid b. ‘Abdur-Rahman Himyari set out for pilgrimage or for ‘Umrah and said:”Should it so happen that we come into contact with one of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) we shall ask him about what is talked about taqdir (Divine Decree). Accidentally we came across Abdullah ibn Umar ibn al-Khattab, while he was entering the mosque. My companion and I surrounded him. One of us (stood) on his right and the other stood on his left. I expected that my companion would authorize me to speak. I therefore said: Abu Abdur Rahman! There have appeared some people in our land who recite the Qur’an and pursue knowledge. And then after talking about their affairs, added: They (such people) claim that there is no such thing as Divine Decree and events are not predestined. He (Abdullah ibn Umar) said: When you happen to meet such people tell them that I have nothing to do with them and they have nothing to do with me. And verily they are in no way responsible for my (belief). Abdullah ibn Umar swore by Him (the Lord) (and said): If any one of them (who does not believe in the Divine Decree) had with him gold equal to the bulk of (the mountain) Uhud and spent it (in the way of Allah), Allah would not accept it unless he affirmed his faith in Divine Decree. He further said: My father, Umar ibn al-Khattab, told me: One day we were sitting in the company of Allah’s Apostle (peace be upon him) when there appeared before us a man dressed in pure white clothes, his hair extraordinarily black. There were no signs of travel on him. None amongst us recognized him. At last he sat with the Apostle (peace be upon him) He knelt before him placed his palms on his thighs and said: Muhammad, inform me about al-Islam. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: Al-Islam implies that you testify that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah, and you establish prayer, pay Zakat, observe the fast of Ramadan, and perform pilgrimage to the (House) if you are solvent enough (to bear the expense of) the journey. He (the inquirer) said: You have told the truth. He (Umar ibn al-Khattab) said: It amazed us that he would put the question and then he would himself verify the truth. He (the inquirer) said: Inform me about Iman (faith). He (the Holy Prophet) replied: That you affirm your faith in Allah, in His angels, in His Books, in His Apostles, in the Day of Judgment, and you affirm your faith in the Divine Decree about good and evil. He (the inquirer) said: You have told the truth. He (the inquirer) again said: Inform me about al-Ihsan (performance of good deeds). He (the Holy Prophet) said: That you worship Allah as if you are seeing Him, for though you don’t see Him, He, verily, sees you. He (the enquirer) again said: Inform me about the hour (of the Doom). He (the Holy Prophet) remarked: One who is asked knows no more than the one who is inquiring (about it). He (the inquirer) said: Tell me some of its indications. He (the Holy Prophet) said: That the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress and master, that you will find barefooted, destitute goat-herds vying with one another in the construction of magnificent buildings. He (the narrator, Umar ibn al-Khattab) said: Then he (the inquirer) went on his way but I stayed with him (the Holy Prophet) for a long while. He then, said to me: Umar, do you know who this inquirer was? I replied: Allah and His Apostle knows best. He (the Holy Prophet) remarked: He was Gabriel (the angel). He came to you in order to instruct you in matters of religion.” [Sahih Muslim]
- Why is this hadith relevant to the hadith of Umar (Hadith 2) because belief in the divine pre-decree of Allah is part of Eemaan (faith) as mentioned by the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), and denying an aspect of Islam renders all the deeds of a person vain
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